The Peoples of Elam (Ran Zadok) Elam consisted of two main parts, viz. the highland in the southwestern part of the Iranian plateau, and the plain of Susiana. The mainly rugged highland was divided into many regions. Elam, therefore, had a confederative political structure and was ethnically heterogeneous. The rich textual documentation, especially from Susiana, covers a period of nearly 3000 years: from the Sargonic to the Early Hellenistic period. This is the first time that a diachronic presentation of the evidence for the peoples who inhabited Elam has been undertaken. Apart from Elamites, the presence of Akkadians and later Arameo-Arabians in Susiana is very old and constant. There is abundant onomastic material about the different peoples, including smaller groups, for example, Kassites, in the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, and about numerous workmen from all over the empire in Achaemenid Elam.