The opposing trends of body mass index and blood pressure during 1977–2020; nationwide registry of 2.8 million male and female adolescents

Boris Fishman, Yair Zloof, Omri Orr, Avishai M. Tsur, Ariel Furer, Ma’ayan Omer Gilon, Gabriel Chodick, Adi Leiba, Estela Derazne, Dorit Tzur, Arnon Afek, Ehud Grossman, Gilad Twig*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Elevated blood pressure among adolescents has been shown to be associated with future adverse cardiovascular outcomes and early onset diabetes. Most data regarding systolic and diastolic blood pressure trends are based on surveys of selected populations within 10–20-year periods. The goal of this study was to characterize the secular trend of blood pressure given the rising prevalence of adolescent obesity. Methods: This nationwide population-based study included 2,785,515 Israeli adolescents (41.6% females, mean age 17.4 years) who were medically evaluated and whose weight, height and blood pressure were measured, prior to mandatory military service between 1977 and 2020. The study period was divided into 5-year intervals. Linear regression models were used to describe the P for trend along the time intervals. Analysis of covariance was used to calculate means of blood pressure adjusted for body mass index. Results: During the study period, the mean body mass index increased by 2.1 and 1.6 kg/m2 in males and females, respectively (P for trend < 0.001 in both sexes). The mean diastolic blood pressure decreased by 3.6 mmHg in males and by 2.9 mmHg in females (P < 0.001 in both sexes). The mean systolic blood pressure increased by 1.6 mmHg in males and decreased by 1.9 mmHg in females. These trends were also consistent when blood pressure values were adjusted to body mass index. Conclusion: Despite the increase in body mass index over the last four decades, diastolic blood pressure decreased in both sexes while systolic blood pressure increased slightly in males and decreased in females.

Original languageEnglish
Article number242
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Adolescents
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diastolic blood pressure
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Systolic blood pressure


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