The new geneva protocols: A step forward or backward?

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The jus in bello is based on the fundamental distinction between combatants and civilians. The distinction is conducive to the protection of civilians from the rigours of war. The protection of medical and religious personnel and medical units-guaranteed in the First Geneva Convention only to permanent or auxiliary personnel of the armed forces-is broadened in the Protocol to civilian personnel, provided that they belong to a Party to the conflict and are recognised by its competent authorities. Article 22 expands the application of the Second Geneva Convention to the case when hospital ships carry civilian wounded, sick and shipwrecked. The entry into force of each Additional Protocol requires the deposit of two ratifications or accessions. In this matter the Protocols follow in the footsteps of the four Geneva Conventions. The compatibility of some reservations with the object and purpose of the Protocols may be a matter of controversy.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Year Book of World Affairs, 1979
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9781000607529
ISBN (Print)9780367273880
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019


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