The needs-based model of reconciliation: How identity restoration processes can contribute to more harmonious and equal social relations

Nurit Shnabel*, Johannes Ullrich, Arie Nadler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The needs-based model is a conceptual framework for understanding the identity-related aspects of reconciliation processes. According to the model, (a) conflicting parties experience threats to their agentic (victims) and moral (perpetrators) identities—leading to heightened needs for empowerment and acceptance, respectively, and (b) satisfying these needs increases victims' and perpetrators' readiness for reconciliation. In this chapter, we review studies testing the model in interpersonal and intergroup contexts. We apply the model to conflicts characterized by mutual transgressions and discuss different ways victims' and perpetrators' identities can be restored (e.g., via empowering and accepting messages from the other or a third party, identity-affirmation exercises). We also apply the model to contexts of structural inequality by (a) presenting evidence that intergroup contact that satisfies disadvantaged and advantaged group members' needs for empowerment and acceptance is associated with their support for change, (b) discussing the moderating role of system justification, and (c) integrating our findings with the rank-based perspective on social class. Finally, we discuss the model's boundary conditions and directions for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology
EditorsBertram Gawronski
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Pages209-276
Number of pages68
ISBN (Print)9780443133640
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2023

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology
Volume67
ISSN (Print)0065-2601

Keywords

  • Acceptance
  • Agency
  • Communion
  • Empowerment
  • Identity restoration
  • Morality
  • Need satisfaction
  • Reconciliation
  • Social identity
  • The needs-based model

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