The mitrofanoff procedure: 20 years later

A. Liard*, E. Séguier-Lipszyc, A. Mathiot, P. Mitrofanoff

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: We review our initial cases of continent cystostomy to assess long-term functional results and complications after a minimum of 15 years of followup. Materials and Methods: Between 1976 and 1984, 23 continent cystostomies were performed on 15 boys and 8 girls with neuropathic bladders. Mean patient age at surgery was 8 years and 4 months (range 3 to 16) and mean followup was 20 years (range 15 to 23). The neurological lesions were due to 21 myelomeningocele (2 associated with an imperforated anus in 21 cases), spinal neuroblastoma in 1 and complex genitourinary malformation associated with an imperforated anus in 1. Closure of the bladder neck was performed in 21 cases (16 during the same procedure, 5 secondarily) and 2 did not undergo this procedure. The appendix was used as the catheterizable conduit in 20 cases, 1 ureter in 2 and a bladder tube in 1. Bladder augmentation was performed during the same procedure in 2 cases and at a later stage in 8. Five patients presented with unilateral or bilateral secondary vesicoureteral reflux. Results: One death occurred after conversion to cutaneous diversion due to a postoperative infection leading to a ventriculoperitoneal valve infection. The remaining 22 patients were followed every 6 to 12 months. No metabolic disorder, secondary malignancy or spontaneous bladder perforation was noted. Bilateral upper tract deterioration was found in 10 cases leading to secondary bladder augmentation by enterocystoplasty in 6 and creation of noncontinent diversion in 4. Leakage occurred after bladder neck closure in 5 patients. Bladder stones were found in 5 patients (2 had prior bladder augmentation). Complications related to the conduit included stomal stenosis or persistent leakage in 11 cases, which required surgical revision and/or repeated dilations and 1 noncontinent diversion after revision failure. Five patients presented with intestinal occlusion due to volvulus in 3 and adhesion in 2. We noted that after 10 years of followup complications were rare and concerned mostly the catheterizable conduit. Therefore, 16 patients had a good and stable result while 6 have noncontinent diversion. Conclusions: The rate of complications has a tendency to decrease with time. The results obtained in this series may appear less satisfactory than those of more recent series, which may be due to the fact that these oldest continent cystostomies correspond to acquisition of experience of this novel approach, and to a period when the concept of low pressure reservoir was not yet established and bladder augmentations were not routinely performed. Since 1984 no continent cystostomy performed at our institution was converted into a noncontinent diversion. This series with long followup demonstrates that continent cystostomy is a procedure with lasting efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2394-2398
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number6 II SUPPL.
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Bladder
  • Cystostomy
  • Follow-up studies


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