Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a known complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) that contributes to long-term morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of components of the MetS in pediatric survivors of allogeneic HSCT and identified associated risk factors. Thirty-eight patients, median age at HSCT, 8.5 years, were evaluated at a median of 3.9 years post-HSCT. Overweight or obesity was seen in 23.7% of the patients, 15.8% had hypertension, 15.8% had hypertriglyceridemia, and 13% had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels according to age and gender. Four (10.5%) met the criteria of MetS; all were transplanted for malignant disease. Twelve patients (31.6%) had at least one component of the MetS. The 5-year probability of developing components of the MetS revealed that patients with BMI-Z score ≥0 at HSCT were significantly at higher risk than those with lower BMI-Z. Patients who developed components of the MetS had higher levels of insulin, homeostasis model assessment, uric acid, leptin, and lower adiponectin levels. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that BMI-Z-score >1.036 at time of evaluation was associated with 4.3-fold increased risk (P=.050) and adiponectin levels ≤6 μg/mL were associated with 6.7-fold increased risk of develop components of the MetS (P=.007). Overweight and obesity and adiponectin levels may be useful as markers in HSCT survivors.
- hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- metabolic syndrome
- total body irradiation
- type 2 diabetes mellitus