The heterogeneous effect of affirmative action on performance

Anat Bracha*, Alma Cohen, Lynn Conell-Price

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper experimentally investigates the effect of gender-based affirmative action (AA) on performance in the lab, focusing on a tournament environment. The tournament is based on GRE math questions commonly used in graduate school admission, and at which women are known to perform worse on average than men. We find heterogeneous effect of AA on female participants: AA lowers the performance of high-ability women and increases the performance of low-ability women. Our results are consistent with two possible mechanisms—one is that AA changes incentives differentially for low- and high-ability women, and the second is that AA triggers stereotype threat.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-218
Number of pages46
JournalJournal of Economic Behavior and Organization
StatePublished - Feb 2019


  • Affirmative action
  • GRE performance
  • Gender differences
  • Stereotype threat


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