The growing role of precision medicine for the treatment of autoimmune diseases; results of a systematic review of literature and Experts’ Consensus

Roberto Giacomelli, Antonella Afeltra, Elena Bartoloni, Onorina Berardicurti, Michele Bombardieri, Alessandra Bortoluzzi, Francesco Carubbi, Francesco Caso, Ricard Cervera, Francesco Ciccia, Paola Cipriani, Emmanuel Coloma-Bazán, Fabrizio Conti, Luisa Costa, Salvatore D'Angelo, Oliver Distler, Eugen Feist, Nathan Foulquier, Marco Gabini, Vanessa GerberRoberto Gerli, Rosa Daniela Grembiale, Giuliana Guggino, Ariela Hoxha, Annamaria Iagnocco, Suzana Jordan, Bashar Kahaleh, Kim Lauper, Vasiliki Liakouli, Ennio Lubrano, Domenico Margiotta, Saverio Naty, Luca Navarini, Federico Perosa, Carlo Perricone, Roberto Perricone, Marcella Prete, Jacques Olivier Pers, Costantino Pitzalis, Roberta Priori, Felice Rivellese, Amelia Ruffatti, Piero Ruscitti, Raffaele Scarpa, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Giovanni Triolo, Athanasios Tzioufas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) share similar serological, clinical, and radiological findings, but, behind these common features, there are different pathogenic mechanisms, immune cells dysfunctions, and targeted organs. In this context, multiple lines of evidence suggest the application of precision medicine principles to AIDs to reduce the treatment failure. Precision medicine refers to the tailoring of therapeutic strategies to the individual characteristics of each patient, thus it could be a new approach for management of AIDS which considers individual variability in genes, environmental exposure, and lifestyle. Precision medicine would also assist physicians in choosing the right treatment, the best timing of administration, consequently trying to maximize drug efficacy, and, possibly, reducing adverse events. In this work, the growing body of evidence is summarized regarding the predictive factors for drug response in patients with AIDs, applying the precision medicine principles to provide high-quality evidence for therapeutic opportunities in improving the management of these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102738
JournalAutoimmunity Reviews
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Precision medicine
  • antiphospholipid syndrome
  • primary Sjogren's syndrome
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • spondyloarthritides
  • systemic lupus erythematosus
  • systemic sclerosis


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