Gaucher disease, resulting from the decreased activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, is the most prevalent sphingolipid storage disease. Due to considerable heterogeneity of phenotypic expression, it has been subdivided into the nonneurological type 1 disease, and types 2 and 3, the neurological types. We describe homozygosity for the D409H mutation within the glucocerebrosidase gene associated with a unique form of type 3 Gaucher disease. Twelve patients, originating from three Arab sibships, were found to be homozygous for the D409H mutation. They all presented with oculomotor apraxia and a progressive cardiac valve defect with minimal organomegaly. When expressed in human cells in tissue culture, using the T7/EMC/vaccinia virus hybrid expression system, we were able to demonstrate that the mRNA carrying the D409H mutation was less stable than the normal counterpart. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that the mutated protein exhibited lower stability than the normal counterpart. Its activity toward the artificial substrate 4-methyl umbelliferyl glucopyranoside was similar to that of the mutated enzymes carrying the N370S or the L444P mutations. However, in loading experiments using lissamine-rhodamine conjugated glucosyl ceramide as a substrate, the recombinant mutated protein carrying the D409H mutation exhibited 28.63 ± 6.05% of the activity exhibited by the normal enzyme. L444P and N370S mutations exhibited 51.90 ± 7.16 and 115.75 ± 12.64% of normal enzyme activity, respectively. Loading of cells homozygous for the D409H mutation demonstrated 10.05% of the activity shown by normal cells. L444P and N370S homozygous cells demonstrated 25.3 and 98.5% of foreskin fibroblast glucocerebrosidase activity, respectively. We demonstrate that homozygosity for the D409H mutation is a unique case of a peculiar phenotype associated with a specific intracellular glucocerebrosidase activity.