The family of Na+/Cl- neurotransmitter transporters

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

Abstract

The termination of neurotransmission is achieved by rapid uptake of the released neurotransmitter by specific high-affinity neurotransmitter transporters. Most of these transporters are encoded by a family of genes (Na+/Cl- transporters) having a similar membrane topography of 12 transmembrane helices. An evolutionary tree revealed five distinct subfamilies: γ-aminobutyric acid transporters, monoamine transporters, amino acid transporters, 'orphan' transporters, and the recently discovered bacterial transporters. The bacterial transporters that belong to this family may help to develop heterologous expression systems with the aim of solving the three-dimensional structure of these membrane proteins. Some of the neurotransmitter transporters have been implicated as important sites for drug action. Monoamine transporters, for example, are targeted by major classes of antidepressants, psychostimulants, and antihypertensive drugs. Localization of individual transporters in specific cells and brain areas is pertinent to understanding their contribution to neurotransmission and their potential as targets for drugs. The most important questions in the field include resolving the mechanism of neurotransmitter transport, the structure of the transporters, and the interaction of each transporter in complex neurological activities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1785-1803
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Neurochemistry
Volume71
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1998

Keywords

  • Amino acid transporters
  • Bacterial transporters
  • Monoamine transporters
  • Neurotransmission
  • Orphan transporters
  • γ-Aminobutyric acid transporters

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