Management science applications in Israel have developed since the 1960s, after the universities began to teach the topic and powerful managers helped the introduction of applications. Uses were extensive only when experts interacted with sophisticated managers, mainly in large organizations where data was available and dissatisfaction with existing methods had developed. MS was much less used when the status quo could not be challenged, mainly in small or regulated firms or when the MS introduction was perceived as a threat to an existing power structure. Today MS is widespread, although its applications are more part of engineering or management practice than the domain of dedicated units. The variables explaining these phenomena are discussed.