The endoscopic Draf II frontal sinusotomy: Non-navigated approach

E. Eviatar*, U. Katzenell, S. Segal, N. Shlamkovitch, L. Muallem Kalmovich, A. Kessler, M. Vaiman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objective: Endoscopic endonasal Draf II frontal sinusotomy is indicated for a variety of pathologies such as mucocele and non-responsive chronic frontal sinusitis. However, this approach is challenged and controversial. The objectives were to evaluate the advantages, disadvantages, indications, and rate of complications of this approach, without the use of a navigation system. Methods: The files and computed tomography (CT) scans of 25 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal Draf II sinusotomy at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center between 1999 and 2002 were reviewed. Results: Thirty-one frontal sinuses were operated on and follow-up was between 18 and 62 months (average 30.3). Twenty-two sinuses (71%) had previous surgery. The Draf II procedure was used in 3.7% of all cases during the survey period. The most frequent indication for surgery was inflammation (48%) followed by mucocele (28%). In all but 2 sinuses (93%), the frontal floor between the lamina papyracea and the middle concha was drilled out. Twenty-four patients (96%) were successfully ventilated. No major complications were noted. Conclusions: The Draf II approach can be used safely and successfully without a navigation system, including cases of revision endoscopic sinus surgery. Correct interpretation of the surgical field and a CT scan are crucial for success. Careful patient selection is essential for this procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)108-113
Number of pages6
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2006


  • Beak
  • Draf II
  • Endoscopic
  • Frontal sinusotomy
  • Navigation


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