The remarkable stability of the eukaryotic genome is achieved by the activity of many overlapping surveillance and repair mechanism. Two protein complexes with resemblance to replication factor C (RFC) have been recently described, that play important roles in maintaining the stability of the genome. These RFC-like complexes (RLCs) share four common subunits (Rfc2-5) and each carry a unique large subunit (Rad24 or Ctf18) replacing the Rfc1 subunit of the replication complex. Work in several laboratories has recently uncovered a novel yeast gene, ELG1, which seems to play a central role in keeping the genome stable. elg1 mutants exhibit increased rates of spontaneous recombination and gross chromosomal rearrangements during vegetative growth. In addition, they lose chromosomes at an enhanced rate, show hyper-transposition of natural repeated elements and exhibit elongated telomeres. The Elg1 protein also associates with the Rfc2-5 subunits of replication factor C (RFC) to form a third RFC-like complex (RLC). Genetic and biochemical data indicate that the Elg1, Ctf18 and Rad24 RLCs work in three separate pathways important for maintaining the integrity of the genome and for coping with various genomic stresses. ELG1 is evolutionarily conserved and may play an important role in preventing the onset of cancer in humans. The Elg1 function is thus clearly required for maintaining genome stability during normal growth, and its absence has severe genetic consequences.