The effects of direct factor Xa Inhibitor (Rivaroxaban) on the human osteoblastic cell line SaOS2

Roy Gigi*, Moshe Salai, Oleg Dolkart, Ofir Chechik, Sarah Katzburg, Naftali Stern, Dalia Somjen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Thromboprophylaxis reduces the risk of surgery-related deep vein thrombosis, but anticoagulants were associated with systemic osteoporosis, a known risk factor for poor fracture healing. Rivaroxaban (XARELTO®) is a novel anticoagulant with specific ability to inhibit factor Xa, a serine endopeptidase, which plays a key role in coagulation. This study investigated the direct effects of rivaroxaban on bone biology using an in vitro cell culture model from the human female osteoblastic cell line SaOS2. Cells at subconfluence were treated for 24 hr with different concentrations of rivaroxaban and analyzed for DNA synthesis and creatine kinase- and alkaline phosphatase-specific activities, and were treated 21 days for analyzing mineralization. Rivaroxaban (0.01-50 μg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited up to 60% DNA synthesis of the cells. Creatine kinase-specific activity was also inhibited dose-dependently to a similar extent by the same concentrations. Alkaline phosphatase-specific activity was dose-dependently inhibited but only up to 30%. Cell mineralization was unaffected by 10 μg/ml rivaroxaban. This model demonstrated a significant rivaroxaban-induced reduction in osteoblastic cell growth and energy metabolism, and slight inhibition of the osteoblastic marker, alkaline phosphatase, while osteoblastic mineralization was unaffected. These findings might indicate that rivaroxaban inhibits the first stage of bone formation but does not affect later stages (i.e., bone mineralization).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)446-450
Number of pages5
JournalConnective Tissue Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • SaOS2
  • cell proliferation
  • energy metabolism
  • mineralization
  • rivaroxaban
  • thromboprophylaxis


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