Background. Inflammation has been shown to play an important role in promoting the response to arterial injury and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, are candidate mediators. AG-556 is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor proven to be effective in a model of multiple sclerosis-like syndrome in mice due to its immunomodulating effect. In the current study, we investigated the effect of the tyrphostin AG-556 on neointimal thickening and cytokine profile in a model of arterial injury in the mouse. Methods. Injury was induced by external cuff placement on the left femoral artery of wild-type C57BL/6 mice. AG-556 dissolved in DMSO was injected intraperitoneally daily to the injured mice in a dosage of 2 mg/mouse. Control mice received DMSO injections. Histological analysis was carried out to assess neointimal formation. Splenocytes were cultured in the absence and presence of a mitogen for evaluation of thymidine incorporation and cytokine production. Results. AG-556 treatment significantly attenuated intimal thickening (43,000 ± 17,000 μm2; n = 11) when compared to DMSO administration (286,000 ± 127,000 μm2; n = 10; P < 0.05). Basal interferon-gamma production by splenocytes from AG-556-treated mice was increased by approximately 20-fold in comparison with levels in DMSO-treated animals, whereas Con-A induced secretion of the cytokine was similar between both groups. Levels of TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IL-10 in the culture supernatant from treated and non-treated animals did not differ significantly. Conclusion. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG-556 may have a role in the reduction of intimal thickening. The effect could be mediated via an immune modulating effect involving a significant increase in the smooth muscle cell inhibitory cytokine IFN-gamma.