The effect of the glycemic control on the aqueous humor glucose levels in diabetic patients undergoing elective cataract surgery

Nir Gomel*, Irina S. Barequet, Lior Lipsky, Nirit Bourla, Adi Einan-Lifshitz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Aqueous humor glucose levels play a role in the anterior segment disorders’ pathophysiology, mainly in diabetics. Our purpose was to evaluate the ratio of aqueous humor glucose levels to blood glucose levels in diabetics and to evaluate the correlation between this ratio and blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Methods: This prospective study was performed in Sheba Medical Center during 2016–2018. The study included type 2 diabetic patients admitted for elective cataract surgery. Blood glucose levels were measured immediately before surgery. HbA1c was obtained within 3 months preoperatively. At the beginning of surgery, 0.05–0.1 mL aqueous humor was drawn. Main outcome measures were aqueous humor glucose/blood glucose ratio and the correlation between HbA1c and aqueous humor glucose/blood glucose ratio. Results: Thirty-seven patients (mean age 75.2 ± 11.2 years) were recruited. The average aqueous humor glucose/blood glucose ratio was 0.69 ± 0.20. A significant positive correlation was found between aqueous humor and blood glucose levels, Pearson coefficient constant R = 0.63 (p < 0.01), and specifically stronger among older patients R = 0.89 (p < 0.01), females R = 0.74 (p < 0.01), patients with short-term disease (<10 years) R = 0.80 (p < 0.01), and patients treated with oral anti-diabetic treatment R = 0.74 (p < 0.01). A significant strong positive correlation was found between HbA1c levels and aqueous humor glucose/blood glucose ratio R = 0.62 (p < 0.01), and specifically stronger among older patients R = 0.82 (p < 0.01), males R = 0.70 (p < 0.01), patients with prolonged disease (⩾10 years) R = 0.540 (p < 0.05), and patients treated with oral anti-diabetic treatment R = 0.62 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: A significant strong correlation was found between aqueous humor glucose levels and blood glucose levels. Poor glycemic control was strongly correlated with an increased ratio, reflecting an increased anterior chamber’s glucose permeability. Older age group was found to have stronger correlation of poor glycemic control with this ratio.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)415-421
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume31
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Cataract surgery in diabetics
  • aqueous humor dynamics
  • biochemistry/physiology
  • biochemistry/physiology of aqueous
  • clear lens extraction
  • glaucoma
  • lens/cataract

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