Excisionase (Xis) is an accessory protein that is required for the excision of the related prophages λ and HK022. Xis binds to two tandemly arranged binding sites (X1 and X2) on the P arm of the recombination sites attP and attR. Gel-retardation analyses and site-specific recombination assays were conducted on derivatives bearing site-directed mutations in the X1 and X2 sites of phage HK022. The results confirm the cooperative binding of Xis to its sites, showing that binding to X1 stimulates further binding to X2. The results also show that mutants affected in a single site are inactive in excision, whereas mutants affected in both sites, which show a complete absence of Xis binding, display significant excision activity. This restored activity is attributed to the interaction of Xis with Integrase, the protein that catalyzes the site-specific recombination reaction.
- Bacteriophage HK022
- Site-specific recombination