Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the imaging modality on the evaluation of the outcome of modern surgical endodontic treatments, based on a systematic review of the literature. Methods: Strict inclusion criteria were adopted in order to identify studies that assessed the outcome of surgical endodontic treatments. Treatment success rates were pooled. The effect of the imaging modality used for the outcome assessment, and the methodological quality of the studies (based on the risk of bias (ROB)), were evaluated. Results: Nineteen articles were included. The success rates assessed by periapical (PA) radiography were significantly higher than when cases were evaluated by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT; 90 and 35% respectively). This difference was mainly due to a significant proportion of cases that were assessed by CBCT as uncertain healing (48%) compared to only 4% using PA. The success rates ranged between 86 and 92% in low ROB studies, and between 19-100% in high ROB studies. Conclusions: Outcome assessment based on CBCT may lead to significantly lower estimates of rate of success, and higher rates of uncertain healing, thus presenting a dilemma in the decision-making following surgical endodontic treatment. The success rates of studies with lower methodological quality are more variable than for high quality studies.
- Systematic review
- surgical endodontic treatment