The effect of HIV on COVID-19 vaccine responses

Itzchak Levy*, Galia Rahav

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of reviewPersons living with HIV (PLWH) may have a moderately increased risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 infection, especially if viral load is not controlled and if they are immunosuppressed. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is the most effective measure to prevent morbidity and mortality. However, individuals with HIV/AIDS may have less protection after vaccination. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent studies focused on examining the safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.Recent findingsThe safety of all anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines among PLWH is not different from the safety of these vaccines among HIV-negative individuals and is acceptable. PLWH with viral suppression and immune reconstitution (CD4+cell count > 350 cells/μl) may reach almost same immunogenicity such as people without HIV albeit antibody levels and neutralization may decline more rapidly than in people without HIV. PLWH with viremia or immunosuppressed, especially AIDS, have less immunogenicity.SummaryFull vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is a well tolerated and efficient way to prevent mortality and morbidity from COVID-19 among PLWH and AIDS patients. It is very important to follow recommended booster vaccination for a continuous and prompt immunogenicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-141
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2023


  • COVID-19
  • HIV
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • breakthrough infection
  • vaccination
  • variants of concern


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