◆ Objective: To evaluate the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the inhibitor of their formation, aminoguanidine, on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production (as a functional marker) by rat peritoneal macrophages (PMφ). ◆ Design: Charles River rats underwent a daily intraperitoneal injection of peritoneal dialysis solution [(PDS), 4.25 g/dL dextrose; Dialine, Travenol, Ashdod, Israel] for a 2-month period (group E). Another group of rats was subjected to the same protocol with the addition of 25 mg/kg aminoguanidine (group A). Three control groups were utilized: (1) rats that were injected daily with aminoguanidine only (group AO), (2) rats that were injected with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (group D), and (3) rats in which no intervention was carried out (group C). After 2 months, PMφ were isolated from rat peritoneal effluent and their TNFα production measured by ELISA in cell-free culture supernatants, in both the basal state and after 24-hour stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The concentrations of AGEs in peritoneal effluent were assayed and correlated to TNFα levels. PMφ obtained from normal rats were then incubated for 24 hours with (1) the peritoneal effluent of each of the above respective groups, with or without LPS; (2) increasing concentrations of AGEs (0 - 250 μg/mL); and (3) increasing concentrations of aminoguanidine (0 - 7.5 mg/mL), and TNFα secretion again determined. ◆ Results: After 2 months of daily intraperitoneal injection of PDS, in the basal state, TNFα production was significantly higher in PMφ isolated from the peritoneal effluent groups (groups E, A, and AO) compared to controls (group C). Following LPS stimulation, a further increase in TNFα secretion was seen, with a significantly greater response in group AO versus groups E, A, and D. Effluent AGEs were markedly elevated only in group E. No correlation was found between TNFα secretion by these PMφ and the concentration of AGEs. On incubation with the respective peritoneal effluents (groups E, A, and AO), in both the basal and stimulated state, TNFα production by PMφ from normal rats was significantly enhanced compared to group C. Incubation with increasing concentrations of AGEs or aminoguanidine resulted in an increase of TNFα secretion by these PMφ. ◆ Conclusions: Following intermittent intraperitoneal administration of glucose-based PDS, rat PMφ are chronically activated, as evidenced by increased basal TNFα secretion. The peritoneal effluent of such treated animals is capable of stimulating TNFα production by normal rat PMφ. These data suggest that glucose-based PDS acts as a primer of PMφ, which retain their ability to further stimulation by LPS. Although, in vitro, AGEs promote TNFα secretion by normal rat PMφ, in vivo, their influence is probably modulated by other factors. Aminoguanidine has a specific inducing effect on rat PMφ, independent of glucose-based PDS.
- Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)
- Peritoneal macrophages