The conformal metric associated with the U(1) gauge of the Stueckelberg-Schrödinger equation

O. Oron*, L. P. Horwitz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We review the relativistic classical and quantum mechanics of Stueckelberg, and introduce the compensation fields necessary for the gauge covariance of the Stueckelbert-Schrödinger equation. To achieve this, one must introduce a fifth, Lorentz scalar, compensation field, in addition to the four vector fields with compensate the action of the space-time derivatives. A generalized Lorentz force can be derived from the classical Hamilton equations associated with this evolution function. We show that the fifth (scalar) field can be eliminated through the introduction of a conformal metric on the spacetime manifold. The geodesic equation associated with this metric coincides with the Lorentz force, and is therefore dynamically equivalent. Since the generalized Maxwell equations for the five dimensional fields provide an equation relating the fifth field with the spacetime density of events, one can derive the spacetime event density associated with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution of the Einstein equations. The resulting density, in the conformal coordinate space, is isotropic and homogeneous, decreasing as the square of the Robertson-Walker scale factor. Using the Einstein equations, one see that both for the static and matter dominated models, the conformal time slice in which the events which generate the world lines are contained becomes progressively thinner as the inverse square of the scale factor, establishing a simple correspondence between the configurations predicted by the underlying Friedmann-Robertson-Walker dynamical model and the configurations in the conformal coordinates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1177-1187
Number of pages11
JournalFoundations of Physics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2003


  • Conformal metric
  • Generalized Maxwell theory
  • Lorentz force


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