The Combined Prognostic Significance of Alkaline Phosphatase and Intracranial Arterial Calcifications in Hemodialysis Patients

Daniel Erez, Feda Fanadka, Sydney Benchetrit, Keren Cohen-Hagai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: The prevalence of intracranial arterial calcification (ICAC) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients is about 90%, and its severity is correlated with age, hemodialysis vintage, and mineral bone disease. Elevated concentrations of calcium and phosphorus are not sufficient for medial calcification because of inhibition by pyrophosphate. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) promotes calcification by hydrolyzing extracellular pyrophosphate. Epigenetic mechanisms involving ALP inhibition by apabetalone were investigated as a potential target for preventing vascular calcifications (VCs). This study assessed the combined impact of VCs and elevated serum ALP on mortality among chronic HD patients. Methods: VCs represented by ICAC were measured simultaneously with mineral bone disease parameters including serum ALP of MHD patients who underwent noncontrast brain computed tomography from 2015 to 2018 in our institution. Results: This retrospective study included 150 MHD patients (mean age 71.3 ± 12.1 years, 60.1% male). Of the total cohort, 12 (7.8%) had no brain calcifications and 69 (45.1%) had multiple intracranial calcifications. Considering the patients with normal ALP and no calcification as the reference group yielded adjusted odds ratios for all-cause mortality of 4.6 (95% CI: 1.7-12.7) among patients with brain calcifications and normal ALP (p = 0.003) and odds ratios for all-cause mortality of 6.1 (95% CI: 2.1-17.7) among patients with brain calcifications and elevated ALP (p= 0.001). Conclusion: We found an independent association between ICAC and the risk of death among MHD patients. The combined effect of ICAC and elevated ALP was associated with a higher odds ratio for all-cause mortality in MHD patients and may contribute to the risk stratification of these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763-770
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Nephrology
Volume52
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • Hemodialysis
  • Mineral bone disease
  • Vascular calcifications

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