Gliadel occasionally induces edema following its implantation. We aimed to correlate such post-surgical radiological changes to its efficacy and subsequent survival. Fifty-six patients with recurrent high grade glioma were treated between 2005 and 2016 with Gliadel implantation. Volumetric measurements of MRI features, including FLAIR abnormalities, tumor bulk (volume of gadolinium enhancement on T1) and resection cavity volumes over time were conducted. To assess dynamics over time, linear regression trendlines for each of these were calculated and examined to correlate with survival. Median follow-up after resection was 21.5 months. Median survival post-Gliadel implantation and overall survival since diagnosis were 12 months and 22 months, respectively. A subgroup of patients (n = 6) with a transient increase in FLAIR changes volume over time survived significantly longer post-Gliadel compared to those who did not demonstrate such change (36 vs 12 months, p =.03). Positive trends, representing overall growth in volume over time, of tumor bulk and resection cavity predicted survival in multivariate analyses (hazard ratios 7.9 and 84, p =.003 and.002, respectively). Increase in tumor bulk and resection cavity over time were associated with decreased survival, while transient FLAIR increase was a favorable prognostic factor. This may represent a transient inflammatory process in the tumor, possibly stemming from a presumed immune-mediated anti-tumor response.