Diaspora or 'ethnic return' migrants have often been privileged in terms of citizenship and material support when they seek to return to their ancestral land, yet for many, after long periods of absence - sometimes extending to generations - acculturation to their new environment is as complex as that experienced by other immigrant groups. Indeed, the mismatch between the idealized hopes of the returning migrants and the high expectations for social integration by the new host country results in particular difficulties of adaptation for this group of immigrants, often with high societal costs. This interdisciplinary, comparative volume examines migration from German and Jewish Diasporas to Germany and Israel, examining the roles of origin, ethnicity, and destination in the acculturation and adaptation of immigrants. The book presents results from various projects within a large research consortium that compared the adaptation of Diaspora immigrants with that of other immigrant groups and natives in Israel and Germany. With close attention to specific issues relating to Diaspora immigration, including language acquisition, acculturation strategies, violence and 'breaches with the past', educational and occupational opportunities, life course transitions and preparation for moving between countries, The Challenges of Diaspora Migration will appeal to scholars across the social sciences with interests in migration and ethnicity, Diaspora and return migration.