Oral mucositis (OM) is a common, highly symptomatic complication of cancer therapy that affects patients' function, quality of life, and ability to tolerate treatment. In certain patients with cancer, OM is associated with increased mortality. Research on the management of OM is ongoing. Oral mucosal toxicities are also reported in targeted and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies. The objective of this article is to present current knowledge about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, assessment, risk prediction, and current and developing intervention strategies for OM and other ulcerative mucosal toxicities caused by both conventional and evolving forms of cancer therapy.