We investigate the biocompatibility of a new class of acupuncture needles that possess a hierarchical nano/microscale porous surface topology, referred to as porous acupuncture needles (PAN). The PAN is synthesized via a facile electrochemical anodization technique by which a surface area approximately 20 times greater than a conventional acupuncture needle, of approximately the same diameter, is obtained. PAN biocompatibility is evaluated using a variety of standard tests, with results indicating that the PAN can safely be used within therapeutic practice.
- electrochemical anodization
- intracutaneous reactivity
- nanoporous acupuncture needles