The association of vancomycin trough levels with outcomes among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections: Retrospective cohort study

Dafna Yahav, Maria Abbas, Laila Nassar, Alia Ghrayeb, Daniel Kurnik, Daniel Shepshelovich, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction Current guidelines recommend maintaining vancomycin trough concentrations between 15–20 mg/L for serious methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. This recommendation is based on limited evidence. Methods A retrospective study including patients with vancomycin susceptible MRSA infections (MIC< = 2 mg/L), treated with vancomycin. We compared outcomes among patients attaining high (> = 15mg/L) vs low (<15mg/L) trough vancomycin levels. We used a propensity score to matching patients achieving low and high levels and conducted an adjusted analysis in the propensity score (PS)-matched cohort using regression analysis. Primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Results Among 285 patients included, there were no significant differences between patients achieving high and low vancomycin levels in mortality (46/131, 35.1% vs 41/154, 26.6%), clinical success, microbiological success, or nephrotoxicity. Similarly, in the PS-matched cohort (n = 162), there was no significant difference in mortality between patients with high and low vancomycin levels (24/53, 45.3% vs 57/109, 52.3%, respectively), adjusted odds ratio for mortality with high levels 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.28–1.43). In both cohorts, patients with pneumonia achieving high levels had significantly higher clinical and microbiological success (PS-matched cohort: clinical success: 16/32, 50.0% vs 5/27, 18.5%, p = 0.012; microbiological success: 19/32, 59.4% vs 7/27, 25.9%, p = 0.010), without significant differences in mortality. Conclusions We found no association between vancomycin levels > = 15 mg/L and clinical outcomes in patients with MRSA infections. In patients with MRSA pneumonia, vancomycin levels > = 15 mg/L were associated with higher clinical success rates. Further larger cohort studies are needed to define optimal vancomycin levels according to the site of infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0214309
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2019

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