Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated an association between increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels and incident diabetes. Most clinical and epidemiological investigations, however, focused solely on male populations or did not analyze men and women separately. We assessed the association between SUA levels and diabetes incidence in a large cohort of apparently healthy men and women. Methods: Data were retrospectively gathered from 9140 adults who participated in annual medical screening visits during 2000-2009. Mean follow-up time was 4.8 years, and the median age was 50 years. Laboratory test results, data from physical examinations, medical history, and lifestyle information were extracted. The main outcome measure was incident diabetes, defined as two consecutive fasting glucose tests higher than 125 mg/dL. Cox proportional-hazards multivariate models were applied for measuring hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes according to continuous and categorical levels of uric acid. Results: We identified 499 new cases of diabetes (total, 5.5%: men, 6.2%; women, 3.6%) during the follow-up period. The gender-specific HRs for diabetes, adjusted for age and a set of prespecified multiple risk and protective factors, were 1.57 for each 1 mg/dL increase in SUA (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.86) in women and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.99-1.17) in men; p for interaction of SUA by gender <0.001. Conclusion: SUA is independently associated with diabetes outcome, considerably more in women than in men.