The Association Between Repeated Measured Febrile Episodes During Early Childhood and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Large-Scale Population-Based Study

Ariel Israel*, Eugene Merzon, Beth Krone, Stephen V. Faraone, Ilan Green, Avivit Golan Cohen, Shlomo Vinker, Shira Cohen, Shai Ashkenazi, Eli Magen, Abraham Weizman, Iris Manor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: We examined the association between the number, magnitude, and frequency of febrile episodes during the 0 to 4 years of life and subsequent diagnosis of ADHD. Methods: This population-based case-control study in an Israeli HMO, Leumit Health Services (LHS), uses a database for all LHS members aged 5 to 18 years between 1/1/2002 and 1/30/2022. The number and magnitude of measured fever episodes during the 0 to 4 years were recorded in individuals with ADHD (N = 18,558) and individually matched non-ADHD controls in a 1:2 ratio (N = 37,116). Results: A significant, independent association was found between the number and magnitude of febrile episodes during the 0 to 4 years and the probability of a later diagnosis of ADHD. Children who never had a measured temperature >37.5°C had a significantly lower rate of ADHD (OR = 0.834, 95% CI [0.802, 0.866], p <.0001). Conclusions: Febrile episodes during 0 to 4 years are associated with a significantly increased rate of a later diagnosis of ADHD in a doseresponse relationship.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)677-685
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Attention Disorders
Volume28
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Funding

FundersFunder number
Noven Pharmaceuticals Incorporated
Supernus Pharmaceutical Company
National Institute of Mental Health1R01NS128535 – 01, U01AR076092-01A1, 1R21MH1264940, R01MH116037
Oregon Health and Science University
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme965381
Otsuka Pharmaceutical

    Keywords

    • ADHD
    • childhood
    • dose-dependent
    • fever
    • neuro-inflammation

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