The association between chronic liver diseases and preeclampsia

Sapir Nachshon, Eran Hadar, Ron Bardin, Shiri Barbash-Hazan, Adi Borovich, Marius Braun, Anat Shmueli*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder characterized by an abnormal vascular response to placentation associated with increased systemic vascular resistance. As liver involvement is one of the main clinical features of preeclampsia, we sought to determine if there is an association between chronic liver diseases and preeclampsia. Methods: A retrospective matched case–control analysis was conducted in a tertiary medical center. Three hundred eleven (311) pregnant women with preexisting chronic liver disease (study group), including viral and autoimmune hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver, Wilson disease, and cirrhosis, were match for age, parity, and number of fetuses to 933 healthy pregnant women (control group). The primary outcome measure was the incidence of preeclampsia in each group. Secondary outcome measures were obstetrical and neonatal complications. Confounders found to be significant on univariate analysis were evaluated using logistic regression models, and odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: Preeclampsia was diagnosed in 28 women (9.0%) in the study group and 33 women (3.54%) in the control group (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis adjusted for maternal age, parity, previous preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, pregestational diabetes mellitus, antiphospholipid syndrome, and mode of conception, chronic liver disease was found to be an independent risk factor for preeclampsia (aOR 2.631, 95% CI 1.518–4.561). Although there was no difference in the gestational week at delivery between the groups (38.6 ± 2.13 vs. 38.8 ± 2.17 for study and control group, respectively, p = 0.410), the study group had a lower mean neonatal birthweight (3088 ± 551 vs. 3182 ± 566 g, p = 0.011). There were no between-group differences in the other parameters evaluated. Conclusion: In our study, preexisting chronic liver disease was associated with a 2.6-fold increased risk of preeclampsia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number500
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Chronic Liver Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Preeclampsia

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