Objective: Garlic (Allium sativum) has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. Its antiatherosclerotic properties are mainly attributed to allicin that is produced upon crushing of the garlic clove. Most previous studies used various garlic preparations in which allicin levels were not well defined. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of pure allicin on atherogenesis in experimental mouse models. Methods and Results: Daily dietary supplement of allicin, 9 mg/kg body weight, reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area by 68.9 and 56.8% in apolipoprotein E-deficient and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice, respectively, as compared with control mice. LDL isolated from allicin-treated groups was more resistant to CuSO 4-induced oxidation ex vivo than LDL isolated from control mice. Incubation of mouse plasma with 3H-labeled allicin showed binding of allicin to lipoproteins. By using electron spin resonance, we demonstrated reduced Cu 2+ binding to LDL following allicin treatment. LDL treatment with allicin significantly inhibited both native LDL and oxidized LDL degradation by isolated mouse macrophages. Conclusions: By using a pure allicin preparation, we were able to show that allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages.
- Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
- Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice