This is an 18-year follow-up of 164 former prisoners of war (POWs) and 190 controls. The study examined long-term morbidity, psychophysio- logical complaints, and illness-related behaviors. Psychophysiological complaints were found to be significantly higher among the POWs than among the controls. A significant association was also found between such complaints and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The individual’s degree of impairment was associated with both objective and subjective characteristics of captivity. The authors outline differences in types of illness observed in PO Ws in the current study and in studies conducted in other countries, and consider the implication of characteristics of captivity and culture.