The added benefit of transvaginal sonography in the clinical staging of cervical carcinoma

Yael Goldberg*, Yoav Siegler, Yakir Segev, Rachel Mandel, Efraim Siegler, Ron Auslander, Ofer Lavie

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Patients diagnosed with cervical cancer face several treatment options, depending on the physical examination and the imaging modality results. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) was proposed as an imaging option to determine local spread of cervical tumors, along with magnetic resonance imaging, also by recently released International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommendations. We examined whether combined data from physical examination, high-detail TVS, and positron emission tomography with 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose and computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) may contribute to triage efficiency of cervical cancer patients. Material and methods: This is a retrospective study of consecutive women diagnosed with cervical cancer at the Carmel Health Center, Haifa, Israel, during 2010-2015. Inclusion criteria were histology of cervical cancer and the availability of three modalities—a thorough physical examination, a high-detail TVS, and positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG and computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). End points were the possibility to predict local invasion to the parametrium and distant lymph node metastasis at the time of triage to surgery or chemoradiation. Results: Seventy-three patients with cervical cancer were evaluated. TVS correctly predicted no involvement of the parametrium for the 25 who had a postoperative pathological report. TVS measurement of tumor dimension was also matched by the pathological report in these cases. Only three patients were referred for adjuvant therapy according to postoperative pathology criteria. Among 43 women treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy due to advanced disease, and with complete data, at least two modalities were congruent with chemoradiation for 33 (77%). Three patients (7%) were referred to chemoradiation due to TVS result alone. Conclusions: The combination of high-detail TVS, directed to predict tumor dimensions and local spread, performed by a trained operator, combined with 18F-FDG PET/CT and physical examination, can assist in selecting optimal treatment for cervical cancer patients, thus avoiding unnecessary operations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)312-316
Number of pages5
JournalActa Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Doppler
  • cervical cancer
  • clinical staging
  • positron emission tomography with F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose and computed tomography
  • transvaginal sonography


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