Nabû-šuma-iškun is described as the emblematic malevolent king in the polemical pamphlet, authored in all probability by an anonymous member of the Urukean priestly establishment. However, certain measures taken by him are within the norms of ancient Near Eastern politics. In addition, accusations made against him by the author of the polemical pamphlet may be relativized. Nabû-šuma-iškun's actions in the international sphere prove that he was a far-sighted statesman. It is demonstrated that important religious and political objectives of this king were not fundamentally different from those of later Babylonian rulers, including kings of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
- Polemical pamphlet