Background: To assess if clinical, pathological, and spermatogenesis factors are associated with clinical staging in patients with testicular germ cell tumors. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the pathology reports and slides from 267 men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer at our institution during 1998-2019. Histologic slides were reviewed and the presence of mature spermatozoa was documented. Clinical, laboratory and radiographic characteristics were recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with advanced disease stage at diagnosis. Results: Of 267 male patients, 115 (43%) patients had testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) and 152 (57%) seminomatous germ cell tumors (SGCT). Among NSGCT patients, those presenting with metastatic disease had a higher proportion of predominant (>50%) embryonal carcinoma (64% vs. 43%, respectively, P = 0.03), and lymphovascular invasion (45.8% vs. 26.6%, respectively, P = 0.03) than non-metastatic patients. Spermatogenesis was observed in 56/65 (86.2%) and 36/49 (73.5%) of non-metastatic and metastatic NSGCT patients, respectively (P = 0.09). On semen analysis, severe oligospermia (<5 million/ml) was more common in metastatic than in non-metastatic NSGCT (26.5% vs. 8.3%, respectively, P = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, predominant embryonal carcinoma and lack of spermatogenesis in pathological specimens were associated with metastatic disease. Conclusion: The absence of spermatogenesis and a high proportion of embryonal carcinoma was associated with advanced disease in patients with NSGCT. Whether it may also translate as a predictor of oncologic outcome needs further evaluation.
|Journal||Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations|
|State||Published - Dec 2021|
- Germ cell tumors
- Testis cancer