The 21st-century kulturkampf: Fundamentalist islam against occidental culture

Shlomo Giora Shoham*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter discusses the findings of the pilot project, ‘Coalitions Against Trafficking in Human Beings in the Philippines Phase 1’. It introduces to definitions of trafficking in human beings, smuggling of migrants and organized criminal groups. The chapter focuses on the survey instruments and methodology. Smuggling involves the illegal movement of migrants across international borders whereas human trafficking may, but does not necessarily involve crossing international borders but by definition, must involve a form of coercion or deception and exploitation. Since the majority of persons depart from the Philippines through international airports, the collusion of officials at points of departure could enhance opportunities for smuggling and trafficking. Respondents in the Philippines and Japan victim surveys were quite pessimistic about the monitoring of labor recruiters and travel agencies/immigration consultants. A special ‘illegal recruitment branch’ within the Philippines Overseas Employment Agency (POEA), along with other enforcement agencies in the Philippines, investigates illegal recruitment.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMigration, Culture Conflict, Crime and Terrorism
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9781317096283
ISBN (Print)9780754626503
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2016


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