The 2022 solar fuels roadmap

Gideon Segev, Jakob Kibsgaard, Christopher Hahn, Zhichuan J. Xu, Wen Hui Cheng, Todd G. Deutsch, Chengxiang Xiang, Jenny Z. Zhang, Leif Hammarström, Daniel G. Nocera, Adam Z. Weber, Peter Agbo, Takashi Hisatomi, Frank E. Osterloh, Kazunari Domen, Fatwa F. Abdi, Sophia Haussener, Daniel J. Miller, Shane Ardo, Paul C. McIntyreThomas Hannappel, Shu Hu, Harry Atwater, John M. Gregoire, Mehmed Z. Ertem, Ian D. Sharp, Kyoung Shin Choi, Jae Sung Lee, Osamu Ishitani, Joel W. Ager, Rajiv Ramanujam Prabhakar, Alexis T. Bell, Shannon W. Boettcher, Kylie Vincent, Kazuhiro Takanabe, Vincent Artero, Ryan Napier, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya, Marc T.M. Koper, Roel Van De Krol*, Frances Houle

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Renewable fuel generation is essential for a low carbon footprint economy. Thus, over the last five decades, a significant effort has been dedicated towards increasing the performance of solar fuels generating devices. Specifically, the solar to hydrogen efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells has progressed steadily towards its fundamental limit, and the faradaic efficiency towards valuable products in CO2 reduction systems has increased dramatically. However, there are still numerous scientific and engineering challenges that must be overcame in order to turn solar fuels into a viable technology. At the electrode and device level, the conversion efficiency, stability and products selectivity must be increased significantly. Meanwhile, these performance metrics must be maintained when scaling up devices and systems while maintaining an acceptable cost and carbon footprint. This roadmap surveys different aspects of this endeavor: system benchmarking, device scaling, various approaches for photoelectrodes design, materials discovery, and catalysis. Each of the sections in the roadmap focuses on a single topic, discussing the state of the art, the key challenges and advancements required to meet them. The roadmap can be used as a guide for researchers and funding agencies highlighting the most pressing needs of the field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number323003
JournalJournal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Issue number32
StatePublished - 11 Aug 2022


FundersFunder number
Advanced Research Center for Chemical Building Blocks
DOE Energy Innovation Hub
EU Horizon 2020 Program
Innovations for Light-Energy Conversion
Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis
Liquid Solar Alliance
Liquid Sunlight Alliance
Mohammed bin Salman Center for Future Science and TechnologyMbSC2030
Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies OfficeDE-EE-0008084
Thistledown Foundation
National Science FoundationCBET-1805084
U.S. Department of EnergyDE-SC0008707, DE-SC0017619, DE-SC0021953, DE-SC0004993, DE-SC00493
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Research Corporation for Science Advancement
Yale University
Office of Science
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable EnergyDE-EE0008092
Basic Energy SciencesDE-SC0021266, DOE-SC0015329
Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryDE-AC52-07NA27344
National Renewable Energy LaboratoryDE-AC36-08GO28308
Laboratory Directed Research and Development19-SI-005
Ministry of Education
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Office
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme819580, 883264, 864234
Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division
Southern California Gas Company5660060287
TomKat Foundation
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research CouncilBB/R018413/1
European Research Council
Australian Research Council
National Research Foundation Singapore
Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftPAK 981, 3096/10, EXC 2089/1-390776260, EXC 2008/1, 406944504—SPP 2080, 3096/19
Agence Nationale de la RechercheANR-17-EURE-0003
Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceJP17H06440, JP20H00396
Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung155876, 191299
New Energy and Industrial Technology Development OrganizationP14002
Japan Science and Technology Agency
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung033RC021A, 03SF0619I, 033RC021C, 03SF0619A-K, 03SF0619C
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Ministry of Science and Technology110-2628-E-006-005
Azrieli Foundation
National Cheng Kung University
Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and TechnologyJPMJPR20T9
Helmholtz Association
Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea


    • COreduction
    • catalysis
    • solar fuels
    • water splitting


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