Purpose: To analyze the 100 most-cited articles on pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Design: Bibliographic study. Methods: Literature search using the bibliographic databases of the ISI Web of Knowledge, limited to research articles published between 1971 and 2018 in peer-reviewed journals of ophthalmology. Main Outcome Measure: Number of citations since publication. Results: The 100 most-cited articles on PPV were published in 11 different ophthalmology journals, with 73 of them published in Ophthalmology (n = 31), American Journal of Ophthalmology (n = 26), and Archives of Ophthalmology (n = 16). They originated from 14 different countries, predominantly from the United States (n = 64), and 99 of them were written in English. Their topics cover a wide spectrum of retinal conditions that vary from decade to decade as the technique of PPV evolved and became applicable to more indications. Conclusions: This bibliographic study provides a unique historic perspective of the development of PPV and its applications from its introduction to its current status.