Background: Application methods of |Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB) need to be improved for wide-scale use, and effects on non-target organisms (NTOs) must be assessed. The goals of this study were to determine, at the village level, the effect of different configurations of bait stations to (1) achieve < 25% Anopheles mosquito vector daily feeding rate for both males and females and (2) minimize the effect on non-target organisms. Methods: Dye was added to Attractive Sugar Bait Stations (without toxin) to mark mosquitoes feeding on the baits, and CDC UV light traps were used to monitor for marked mosquitoes. An array of different traps were used to catch dye marked NTOs, indicating feeding on the ASB. Stations were hung on homes (1, 2, or 3 per home to optimize density) at different heights (1.0 m or 1.8 m above the ground). Eight villages were chosen as for the experiments. Results: The use of one ASB station per house did not mark enough mosquitoes. Use of two and three stations per house gave feeding rates above the 25% goal. There was no statistical difference in the percentage of marked mosquitoes between two and three stations, however, the catches using two and three bait stations were both significantly higher than using one. There was no difference in An. gambiae s.l. feeding when stations were hung at 1.0 and 1.8 m. At 1.8 m stations sustained less accidental damage. ASB stations 1.8 m above ground were fed on by three of seven monitored insect orders. The monitored orders were: Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera and Orthoptera. Using one or two stations significantly reduced percentage of bait-fed NTOs compared to three stations which had the highest feeding rates. Percentages were as follows: 6.84 ± 2.03% Brachycera followed by wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) 5.32 ± 2.27%, and Rhopalocera 2.22 ± 1.79%. Hanging the optimal number of stations per house for catching mosquitoes (two) at 1.8 m above ground, limited the groups of non-targets to Brachycera, Chironomidae, Noctuoidea, Rhopalocera, parasitic wasps and wasps (Hymenoptera). Feeding at 1.8 m only occurred when stations were damaged. Conclusions: The goal of marking quarter of the total Anopheles population per day was obtained using 2 bait stations at 1.8 m height above the ground. This configuration also had minimal effects on non-target insects.
- Anopheles gambiae s.l
- Non-target organisms (NTOs)