Purpose: To review and update several aspects of testicular torsion. Incidence: The relative incidence of testicular torsion, torsion of testicular appendix and epididymo-orchitis is variable and depends on mode of diagnosis and patients' age. Age: Testicular torsion can occur at any age. The peak is in adolescents below the age of 18 years. Symptoms: Classical symptoms are not always present. Range of duration is varied. Nausea and vomiting are positive predictive value for testicular torsion. Physical Examination: Main findings predicting testicular torsion are absence of cremasterk reflex and diffuse tenderness. Imaging: Color Doppler Ultrasound can assess in equivocal and low clinical suspicious conditions for testicular torsion. Neonatal Torsion: There are two conditions in this age group; the prenatal that urgent exploration is in controversy and postnatal that urgent surgery is required. Late Outcome: Early salvage rate and late atrophy depends on duration and degree of torsion. Medicolegal: Testicular torsion is an active area of malpractice litigation. Late presentation and atypical presentations do not affect the medicolegal outcome.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews|
|State||Published - Dec 2003|
- Acute Scrotum
- Testicular Torsion
- Torsion Testicular Appendix Epididymo-orchitis