Testicular torsion in the pediatric age group: Diagnosis and treatment

Pinhas M. Livne, Bezalel Sivan, Boaz Karmazyn, David Ben-Meir

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose: To review and update several aspects of testicular torsion. Incidence: The relative incidence of testicular torsion, torsion of testicular appendix and epididymo-orchitis is variable and depends on mode of diagnosis and patients' age. Age: Testicular torsion can occur at any age. The peak is in adolescents below the age of 18 years. Symptoms: Classical symptoms are not always present. Range of duration is varied. Nausea and vomiting are positive predictive value for testicular torsion. Physical Examination: Main findings predicting testicular torsion are absence of cremasterk reflex and diffuse tenderness. Imaging: Color Doppler Ultrasound can assess in equivocal and low clinical suspicious conditions for testicular torsion. Neonatal Torsion: There are two conditions in this age group; the prenatal that urgent exploration is in controversy and postnatal that urgent surgery is required. Late Outcome: Early salvage rate and late atrophy depends on duration and degree of torsion. Medicolegal: Testicular torsion is an active area of malpractice litigation. Late presentation and atypical presentations do not affect the medicolegal outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)128-133
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Endocrinology Reviews
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 2003


  • Acute Scrotum
  • Testicular Torsion
  • Torsion Testicular Appendix Epididymo-orchitis


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