Introduction Cancer among children creates substantial public concern. In France, 2000 new cases of cancer in males below age 15 years are reported every year. In the USA, approximately 150 out of every million males under 20 years of age are diagnosed with cancer each year. Consequently, approximately 12 400 children and adolescents in these countries alone are stricken with cancer. Approximately 2300 children and adolescents die of cancer each year in the USA, which makes cancer the most common cause of disease-related mortality in those aged 1-19 years. A male newborn in the USA has 0.32% probability of developing cancer by age 20 (i.e. a 1 in 300 chance). Children and adolescents show typical cancer types, usually the more aggressive varieties. Among those younger than 20 years of age, 57% of cancers are leukemia, malignant tumors of the central nervous system, or lymphoma. The relative percentage, however, varied by age group. Leukemia is the most common diagnosis in the USA for those under 14 years of age, but the relative proportion decreased with age through the age groups under 5, 5-9 years, and 10-14 years of age: being 36% for those under 5 years and only 12% for adolescents 15-19 years of age. For those aged 15-19 years, lymphomas have been the most common diagnosis, making up 25% of the cases.