Temporary arterial stenting: Comparison to permanent stenting and conventional balloon injury in a rabbit carotid artery model

Eldad Rechavia, Michael C. Fishbien, Tony DeFrance, Masato Nakamura, Asish Parikh, Frank Litvack, Neal Eigler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The objective was to assess the arterial wall response to temporary stenting with a removable nitinol stent in comparison with permanent stenting and balloon injury at 28 days in the rabbit carotid artery. Restenosis remains an important limiting factor after the implantation of permanent metallic stents and balloon angioplasty. We have developed a temporary nitinol stent that uses a bolus injection of warmed saline to collapse the stent for percutaneous removal. Vascular changes related to the thermal saline bolus injection required to remove a nitinol implanted stent were assessed in 12 rabbit carotid arteries at 7 and 28 days postinjection. Nitinol stents, inflated to 3.0 mm diameter, were implanted for 3 days (n = 6) and history and quantitative histomorphometry examined at 28 days. Results were compared with permanently implanted stents (n = 5) and balloon injury (n = 9). Dual bolus injection of 10 ml at 70°C created an acute necrotizing injury and chronic neointimal proliferation, whereas injections of 5 ml at 63°C were minimally injurious. Temporary stenting resulted in the least neointimal proliferation measured by the intima to media ratio (0.22 ± 0.10 vs. 1.59 ± 0.31 for permanent stenting and; 0.49 ± 0.14 for balloon injury; P < 0.001). Temporary stenting maintained a significantly larger lumen than balloon (1.53 ± 0.72 mm2 vs. 0.64 ± 0.14 mm2; P < 0.001), which could not be explained by absolute changes in intimal corss sectional area (0.14 ± 0.07 mm2 vs. 0.21 ± 0.06 mm2 respectively; P < 0.33). Temporary stenting resulted in a relatively larger vessel area within the external elastic lamina than with balloon (2.28 ± 1.06 mm2 vs. 1.30 ± 0.18 mm2; P = 0.007). The thermal stent recovery process can create necrotizing vascular injury and neointimal proliferation at higher temperatures and injectate volumes. Stent removal after 3 days using 63°C saline bolus injection results in less neointimal proliferation than with permanent stents or balloon injury. In comparison to balloon injury, temporary stenting also may have a long-lasting beneficial effect on vessel recoll and remodeling, resulting in larger lumen size after stent removal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-92
Number of pages8
JournalCatheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 1997


  • balloon injury
  • carotid artery model
  • temporary stenting


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