Objective The transradial approach (TRA) has increasingly been adopted for the use of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), with reported clinical benefits. Little is known regarding the change in outcomes over time. Patients and methods From our large single-center PCI registry, we have analyzed 15 429 patients in two periods-2008-2012 (period 1) and 2013-2017 (period 2). We examined the proportions of use of TRA, the influence on in-hospital outcomes, and adjusted long-term effects. Results The rate of TRA rose from 15.9% in period 1 to 69.1% in period 2, including in specific situations such as acute coronary syndrome, chronic total occlusion, bifurcation, calcified lesions, and unprotected left main PCI. In-hospital rates of bleeding were lower for TRA versus transfemoral artery (1.8 vs. 5.1%, overall, P < 0.001), as were rates of additional bleeding events in the following 12 months (1.3 vs. 2.4%, P < 0.001). Following multivariate analysis, use of TRA was associated with a lower 30-day and 4-year rate of the composite outcomes of death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, or coronary artery bypass surgery [at 4 years, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.96; P = 0.007, during period 1 and HR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.55-0.7; P < 0.0001 during period 2]. Interaction analysis showed a stronger effect at the latter period (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.59-0.81, P < 0.001). Conclusion Over a decade of follow-up, TRA has gained acceptance for different PCI scenarios, including complex patients-a course which is associated with consistent short and long-term clinical benefits.
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