Temporal flickering of contrast agents for enhanced optical imaging

Tali Ilovitsh, Zeev Zalevsky

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The temporal flickering of contrast agents that labels a biological sample is a unique modality for cellular imaging with single molecule sensitivity. It improves the signal-to-noise ratio statistics associated with the noisy in vivo environment and has promising applications in single particle tracking and super-resolution microscopy techniques. The flickering can be triggered either statistically through the mechanism of temporal fluctuations of the emitter or through external modulation. The enriching toolbox of contrast agents that are feasible for biomedical imaging for the flickering methods will be discussed, with emphasis on the emerging field of flickering gold nanoparticles and the lock-in detection mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-448
Number of pages10
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


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