Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) stabilizes nephron function by causing changes in single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) to compensate for changes in late proximal flow (VLP). TGF responds within seconds and reacts over a narrow range of VLP that surrounds normal VLP. To accommodate sustained increases in VLP, TGF must reset around the new flow. We studied TGF resetting by inhibiting proximal reabsorption with benzolamide (BNZ; administered repeatedly over a 24-hour period) in Wistar-Froemter rats. BNZ acutely activates TGF, thereby reducing SNGFR. Micropuncture was performed 6-10 hours after the fourth BNZ dose, when diuresis had subsided. BNZ caused glomerular hyperfiltration, which was prevented with inhibitors of macula densa nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Because of hyperfiltration, BNZ increased VLP and distal flow, but did not affect the basal TGF stimulus (early distal salt concentration). BNZ slightly blunted normalized maximum TGF response and the basal state of TGF activation. BNZ sensitized SNGFR to reduction by S-methyl- thiocitrulline (SMTC) and caused the maximum TGF response to be strengthened by SMTC. Sensitization to type I NOS (NOS-I)blockers correlated with increased macula densa NOS-I immunoreactivity. Tubular transport measurements confirmed that BNZ affected TGF within the juxtaglomerular apparatus. During reduced proximal reabsorption, TGF resets to accommodate increased flow and SNGFR through a mechanism involving macula densa NOS.