Blood coagulation factors can enter the brain under pathological conditions that affect the blood–brain interface. Besides their contribution to pathological brain states, such as neural hyperexcitability, neurodegeneration, and scar formation, coagulation factors have been linked to several physiological brain functions. It is for example well established that the coagulation factor thrombin modulates synaptic plasticity; it affects neural excitability and induces epileptic seizures via activation of protease-activated receptors in the brain. However, major limitations of current experimental and clinical approaches have prevented us from obtaining a profound mechanistic understanding of “neuro-coagulation” in health and disease. Here, we present how novel human relevant models, i.e., Organ-on-Chips equipped with advanced sensors, can help overcoming some of the limitations in the field, thus providing a perspective toward a better understanding of neuro-coagulation in brain homeostasis.
- Blood brain barrier
- Human relevant in vitro models
- Neurovascular unit