Task Force Consensus on Nosology and Cut-Off Values for Axial Postural Abnormalities in Parkinsonism

the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society Task Force on Postural Abnormalities

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: There is no consensus with regard to the nosology and cut-off values for postural abnormalities in parkinsonism. Objective: To reach a consensus regarding the nosology and cut-off values. Methods: Using a modified Delphi panel method, multiple rounds of questionnaires were conducted by movement disorder experts to define nosology and cut-offs of postural abnormalities. Results: After separating axial from appendicular postural deformities, a full agreement was found for the following terms and cut-offs: camptocormia, with thoracic fulcrum (>45°) or lumbar fulcrum (>30°), Pisa syndrome (>10°), and antecollis (>45°). “Anterior trunk flexion,” with thoracic (≥25° to ≤45°) or lumbar fulcrum (>15° to ≤30°), “lateral trunk flexion” (≥5° to ≤10°), and “anterior neck flexion” (>35° to ≤45°) were chosen for milder postural abnormalities. Conclusions: For axial postural abnormalities, we recommend the use of proposed cut-offs and six unique terms, namely camptocormia, Pisa syndrome, antecollis, anterior trunk flexion, lateral trunk flexion, anterior neck flexion, to harmonize clinical practice and future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)594-603
Number of pages10
JournalMovement Disorders Clinical Practice
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Parkinson's disease
  • Pisa syndrome
  • antecollis
  • atypical parkinsonisms
  • camptocormia
  • diagnostic criteria.
  • postural abnormalities


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