Targeting the tumor microenvironment by immunotherapy: Part 2

Judith Leibovici*, Orit Itzhaki, Monica Huszar, Judith Sinai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cancer therapy was traditionally centered on the neoplastic cells. This included mainly surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, in some cases hormone therapy and to a lesser extent immunotherapy - all traditionally targeted to the highly proliferating mutated tumor cells. In view of our present understanding of the powerfull influence of the tumor microenvironment (TME) on cancer behavior and response - and lack of response - to treatment, this previously ignored constituent of cancer now has to be considered as an important, even indispensable target for therapy. The TME may be targeted both to its immune and to its nonimmune components. The various immune evasion elements of the TME should be targeted as well.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1385-1408
Number of pages24
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • cancer immunotherapy
  • growth promoting targets
  • immune evasion targets
  • immune targets
  • nonimmune targets
  • tumor microenvironment


Dive into the research topics of 'Targeting the tumor microenvironment by immunotherapy: Part 2'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this