Targeting Persistent Biofilm Infections: Reconsidering the Topography of the Infection Site during Model Selection

Ilana Kolodkin-Gal*, Malena Cohen-Cymberknoh, Gideon Zamir, Igor Tsesis, Eyal Rosen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The physiology of an organism in the environment reflects its interactions with the diverse physical, chemical, and biological properties of the surface. These principles come into consideration during model selection to study biofilm–host interactions. Biofilms are communities formed by beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, where cells are held together by a structured extracellular matrix. When biofilms are associated with a host, chemical gradients and their origins become highly relevant. Conventional biofilm laboratory models such as multiwall biofilm models and agar plate models poorly mimic these gradients. In contrast, ex vivo models possess the partial capacity to mimic the conditions of tissue-associated biofilm and a biofilm associated with a mineralized surface enriched in inorganic components, such as the human dentin. This review will highlight the progress achieved using these settings for two models of persistent infections: the infection of the lung tissue by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the infection of the root canal by Enterococcus faecalis. For both models, we conclude that the limitations of the conventional in vitro systems necessitate a complimentary experimentation with clinically relevant ex vivo models during therapeutics development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1164
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • biofilm
  • dentin
  • experimental models
  • infection


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