Cyclin D1 (CyD1) is a pivotal cell cycle-regulatory molecule and a well-studied therapeutic target for cancer. Although CyD1 is also strongly up-regulated at sites of inflammation, its exact roles in this context remain uncharacterized. To address this question, we developed a strategy for selectively silencing CyD1 in leukocytes in vivo. Targeted stabilized nanoparticles (tsNPs) were loaded with CyD1-small interfering RNA (siRNA). Antibodies to β7 integrin (β7 I) were then used to target specific leukocyte subsets involved in gut inflammation. Systemic application of β7 I-tsNPs silenced CyD1 in leukocytes and reversed experimentally induced colitis in mice by suppressing leukocyte proliferation and T helper cell 1 cytokine expression. This study reveals CyD1 to be a potential anti-inflammatory target, and suggests that the application of similar modes of targeting by siRNA may be feasible in other therapeutic settings.